Del’s talk “Water and Ice” focuses on Cumberland’s geological past…..continental collision, uplift and basin creation, nearshore swamps, submarine landslides and westward thrusting of basin sediments, during warm climate conditions and worldwide sea level rise some 80 million years ago. Moving the clock forward in time to 15,000 years ago, the wetlands were smothered in 2 km thick ice with sea levels 80 m higher than present. As the ice retreated, and the land rebounded, the “Comox River” drained the lake through several paleo-pathways, often blocked by the retreating ice sheet. By 7000 years ago the sea level was ~5m below the current level and continues to rise slowly. The presentation sums up how the geological past influences the present wetland configuration, and questions what might be in the future.